Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Motivational Techniques Free Essays

Motivationals techniques in Switzerland MOTIVATIONAL METHODS THAT ARE MOST EFFECTIVE IN EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION Robert Gordon University †Business and Hotel Management School BA Hotel and Hospitality Management Course BS 3149 Research Methods for Business Students Module facilitator: Ms Heather Robinson Submission date: ninth April 2013 Student ID No. : 1219453 Word Count: 2008 1. Point: Motivational techniques that are best in friendliness representative inspiration 2. We will compose a custom exposition test on Persuasive Techniques or then again any comparative subject just for you Request Now QUESTION: What are the best techniques to persuade eatery representatives in Switzerland? . ARTICLES ANKLI, R. E. , PALLIAM, R. , (2012). Empowering a roused workforce: investigating the wellsprings of inspiration. Advancement and Learning in Organizations, 26(2), pp. 7 †10 BASSETT-JONES, N. , LLOYD, G. C. , (2005). Does Herzberg’s inspiration hypothesis have backbone?. Diary of Management Development, 24(10), pp. 929 †943 ESKILDSEN, J. K. , KRISTENSEN, K. , and WESTLUND, A. H. , (2004). Work inspiration and occupation fulfillment in the Nordic nations. Worker Relations, 26(2), pp. 122 †136 LEE-ROSS, D. , (2005). Seen work attributes and interior work inspiration: An exploratory culturally diverse investigation of the persuasive precursors of inn laborers in Mauritius and Australia. Diary of Management Development, 24(3), 253 †266. STAMOV-ROSSNAGEL, C. , and HERTEL, G. , (2010). More seasoned workers’ inspiration: against the legend of general decrease. The executives Decision, 48(6), 894 †906. WHEELER, A. R. , BUCKLEY, M. R. , (2001). Analyzing the inspiration procedure of impermanent workers: An all encompassing model and examination system. Diary of Managerial Psychology, 16(5), pp. 339 †354. Different SOURCES HERZBERG, F. , MAUSNER, B. , and SNYDERMAN, B. B. , 1959. Inspiration to work. New York: Transaction Publishers. 4. Reason The specialist accepts that the theme chose is critical for the café and accommodation industry today and assumes a key job in boosting benefit as inspiring the workforce would additionally help in better assistance, food quality and even capacity to hold clients in a specific way. As indicated by Stamov-Rossnagel and Hertel (2010), the persuasive components relies upon a serious wide scope of potential outcomes, anyway one of them incorporate the workplace, peers and the need to rival the accomplishments of another laborer in a similar substance. These laborers are inspired when they have the best possible hardware wanted for playing out a particular assignment and are routinely refreshed with the most recent gear which would help them in their undertakings at work. At the point when these laborers feel that they are being observed and are thought about by giving the gear, appropriate working conditions, they definitely want to perform better and are roused. In any case, incidentally, the scope of assignments in an occupation may not be as persuading as the specific errand that the laborer is keen on. Checking these undertakings which persuade a specialist ought to be explicitly appointed to them to improve profitability. Chiefs should confine and keep away from the utilization of any kind of social or moral foundation about a worker while attempting to pass judgment on the work or spurring him (Lee-Ross, 2005). Different western organizations watched and rehearsed the methodology of participative initiative and style of work which included the choices and perspectives on each specialist, which would in a roundabout way rise their regard and persuade them. Reverence and duty are two exceptionally significant inspirations. People additionally have individual objectives and on the off chance that they are like those of the undertaking, at that point inspiration is a basic procedure. In any case, recognizing the points and objectives of workers is required to interface it in a manner to that of the association and exceed expectations in incomes and market efficiency. These people could raise a few inventive methods and thoughts, particularly when they are at the prime of inspiration level. Henceforth, the objectives and points of people matter to a great extent in a venture for it to quicken in the market. Impermanent workers are a typical pattern in today’s period where tremendous worldwide and privately owned businesses representative them explicitly for decreasing expense and having the option to control the calendar of the low maintenance or transitory representatives (Wheeler and Buckley, 2001). Be that as it may, numerous privately owned businesses representative impermanent workers and are anticipating that them should be spurred for the activity. The all day laborers likewise lose enthusiasm for clarifying the low maintenance laborers about the work process and the significance of following a deliberate way to deal with each strategy and thus, the brief specialists don't want to perform better and quicken in their position. The impermanent laborers are kept separated from the significant choices being taken in the association and are disengaged, particularly in MNC’s, for example, McDonald’s Burger King and different diverse drive-through joints. Be that as it may, this additionally suggests to certain other easygoing cafés which utilizes assistants and other low maintenance laborers who also are not inspired enough to invest their amounts of energy into the undertaking. The scientist investigated the writing and recognized the accompanying not many points of interest of spurring individuals: 1. Makes an energetic workforce 2. Empowers the chance to determine any encounter in no time and lift staff resolve 3. Expands income of the café . Takes out the need of observing staff According to Eskildsen, Kristensen, and Westlund, (2004) ladies are more fulfilled than men in regards to work fulfillment, representatives with more significant level of instruction need not really be increasingly fulfilled, however at time could even outcome to be the opposite. Be that as it may, instruction level doesn't affect inherent variables, while administrative situated specialists are progressively happy with their employments. The Herzberg hypothesis expresses that the persuasive components are partitioned into two primary parts, the main known as the cleanliness factors which are identified with pay, working conditions and cooperation while the last is identified with inspirational methods (Bassett-Jones and Lloyd, 2005). Persuasive methods depend entirely on 3 central point, capacity to work out, chance to practice and criticism to self. These are clarified in the book by Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman (1959) which depict the cleanliness factors offered by the business basically as ‘KITA’ or kick in the ass, which doesn't rouse one yet rather compromises them to work more enthusiastically as it were. In the event that one have the capacity to perform or has an expertise, for example, correspondence, administration, cooking and so on he/she will plan to accomplish better objectives throughout everyday life. In any case, if the individual doesn't have the gear and other fundamental intends to rehearse his aptitudes, he won't have the option to perform to the best and would not be propelled. This later incorporates a criticism, which may not generally originate from a more significant position authority however even from self makes a difference. These are the 3 essential necessities for inspiration and is identified with each industry. 5. Points: The point of this examination paper is to investigate the best method(s) for rousing café workers in Switzerland. . Targets: To survey past and current strategies for worker inspiration To analyze the contrast between representative inspiration techniques in various cafés in Switzerland To assess the most utilized techniques applied by bo sses and their adequacy 7. Strategy The specialist was energetic about gathering essential information and is looking forward to arrangement a system for conveying between a few eateries in Switzerland in regards to the persuasive procedures broadly utilized inside the eatery for sponsorship up representatives for additional work. The examination theory surfaced as authenticity as the strategies and procedures are pertinent in the handy life and should be looked into by and by for an all the more clear vision. Deductive methodology was the most appropriate style for this sort of exploration where the specialist assessed various ideas and hypotheses set in front of him by various rationalists and analysts contemplating the territory of inspiration of representatives in an industry and a blend of both subjective and quantitative examination were both important in such an undertaking. Subjective examination held tight the writing and diary articles and will likewise incorporate the studies spread all through specific cafés in Switzerland, and the analyst would later meeting and question the proprietor of a renowned Indian eatery in Zurich, Switzerland which is known for persuading its representatives to a serious extent and empowering them to screen and deal with an eatery solo. The specialist will appropriate a poll among 30 unique representatives of a few eateries in Luzern and in Zurich and furthermore to 3-5 diverse eatery directors for criticism with respect to the persuasive strategies and methods plentiful in the region. The examining strategy is non-likelihood, purposive technique and spotlights on just a specialty of the populace. Ascertaining the outcomes from both the business and representative would broaden the extent of exploration and present forward a more ransparent information on persuasive methods applied. The Fredrick Herzberg hypothesis of persuasive and sterile elements are very pertinent to this center point and go inseparably with the thoughts of the analyst. The commonsense world has confidence in cash being an overwhelming help and just as professional stability, working conditions and advantages. The analyst claims it to be bogus and might want to demonstrate it on paper. 8. DRAFT QUESTIONS My name is Ankit Sharma and I am an under study of Business and Hotel Management School in Luzern, Switzerland. This exploration review will give me solid proof towards my undertaking, ‘What are the best techniques to inspire café representatives in Switzerland’ and help me in my Research

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Airport Security free essay sample

Danger of psychological warfare innovative human techniques for recognition counteraction. Access control, explosives, x-beam imaging, atomic methods, expenses and preparing. The avionics business starting late has confronted the staggering issue of security, because of a specific break thereof which had astonishing outcomes and suggestions with respect to the conceivable outcomes of dangerous air travel. Regarding this, safety efforts were important to guarantee that such a circumstance would not again emerge. In this manner, screening turned into a stage in movement, one which is presently confronted with different arrangements with varying degrees of social and moral determination. The enrolled flyer program set up to empower pre-screening is abandoned by the money related necessities of the administration, overlooking monetary imbalance inside society. The morals of permitting privately owned businesses to decide the character of residents are additionally dim considering the opportunity for mistake and misuse made. Security will be and has consistently been an issue inside American culture. The presence of apparatus which attacks this must be met wit h rules to forestall its maltreatment, as untrustworthy workers may make sense of an approach to kill blue pencils, consequently observing things the flyers would not with them to. We will compose a custom paper test on Air terminal Security or on the other hand any comparative subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Likewise with any industry, that of flight faces various traps to social and moral wrong, which must be searched out and adjusted before any harm being finished.

Friday, August 14, 2020

Strategies for ADHD Students to Improve Writing Skills

Strategies for ADHD Students to Improve Writing Skills ADHD School Print Strategies to Improve Writing Skills in Students With ADHD By Keath Low Keath Low, MA, is a therapist and clinical scientist with the Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities at the University of North Carolina. She specializes in treatment of ADD/ADHD. Learn about our editorial policy Keath Low Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on June 24, 2018 ADHD Overview Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Living With In Children Christian Horz/Getty Images Students with ADHD often have really wonderful, creative ideas. Getting these ideas and thoughts down on paper, however, can sometimes be quite a challenge. Many students with ADHD find that the process of writing is a struggle and an area they would prefer to avoid at all costs. These students often take longer to get started with writing assignments, have difficulty organizing their thoughts and getting them down on paper, and may struggle to maintain their focus on the task at hand. Unfortunately, as a student moves into the high school and college years, writing assignments -- reports, essays, and discussion questions -- figure in prominently in the curriculum. But the good news is theres hope for improving your writing skills, even with ADHD. Why ADHD Students Tend to Have Difficulty With Developing Writing Skills The process of writing involves the integration of several skills including the ability to generate, plan and organize ideas, express one’s thoughts with words, and structure sentences and paragraphs in proper order. Writing also requires working memory. In her book, Teaching Teens with ADD, ADHD, and Executive Function Deficits, Chris Dendy, M.S., explains how working memory comes into play: “Students have to use their working memory to remember what they are writing about and decide which thought they want to express next. Simply holding that thought or a chunk of information in working memory long enough to write it down is often difficult.” Working memory is also necessary in order to correctly apply spelling, grammar, capitalization and punctuation rules when writing. In addition, writing requires fine-motor coordination and the ability to organize print on paper. A student must also control impulsivity and a tendency to rush through his or her work and must be able to sustain attention to complete the process of written expression. Strategies to Improve Writing Skills Use whichever form of writing comes more naturally to you â€" print or cursive. For many students, printing comes more easily and requires less memory than cursive writing.Use a computer for written work.Ask for accommodations such as extended time on written work.Brainstorm ideas and write them all down, then narrow selections one at a time.Talk it out. Spend some time talking out loud about what you want to write.Dictate your words into a tape recorder, then type them up or use a speech-to-text software program.Use Post-it notes to write down each of your ideas on a topic. Then organize and group ideas.Make an outline or use a graphic organizer or mind map to help structure writing projects.Write a first draft of the written assignment and then show it to the teacher before it is due so that she can make suggestions and give input before you turn in the final draft.Ask your teacher for two grades -- one grade for content and one for grammar, spelling, and punctuation.If you are usi ng a computer, run spell and grammar check.Get help from your parent or friend with proofreading and reviewing your work.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

A Doll s House, And Tom - 946 Words

Nora, in A Doll’s House, and Tom, in The Glass Menagerie, are similar protagonists yet have very different characteristics. Both of them left their family that destroyed the family in some way in turn acting very selfishly, yet Tom has done worse in his circumstances because Amanda and Laura were dependant on him. Nora was a doll wife. She was coddled by her husband Torvald and realised she was really a doll at the end. She showed signs of really wanting to rebel by doing small acts of eating macaroons when they were forbidden, to a big act of breaking the law to get a loan to save her husband’s life. She also bargains with him a little when she says, â€Å"Your squirrel would run about and do all her tricks if you would be nice, and do what she wants(Ibsen 34).† So when she put the puzzle pieces together that she was a doll, she decided to go adventure and really experience life. That very important experience everyone should make so they can make decisions of their own, but at the price of leaving her husband without a wife and children without a mother even though Torvald was willing to change. Tom had a different yet similar experience. He had to provide financial support to his mother and sister because their father left them. Tom hates his job and wants to go find himself like young men at his age do but can’t due to his sister not able to provide for herself and no suitor coming her way. After an argument with his mother about the gentleman caller he brought to hisShow MoreRelated How does Harper Lee Manage to Draw Together the Stories of Boo Radley1133 Words   |  5 PagesHow does Harper Lee Manage to Draw Together the Stories of Boo Radley and Tom Robinson? Do you find her Way of doing this Effective? There is a strong literary motif running through Harper Lees novel To Kill a Mockingbird. The stories of Boo Radley and Tom Robinson are drawn together by the way they are both mockingbirds in their own way. Both men are on the outskirts of society and are misunderstood by the predominantly white population of Maycomb. In the first part of the novel, thereRead MoreThe Desires Of Being Rich1118 Words   |  5 Pagesselves as human beings. An object should not be able to define that happiness. Money s not everything and it’s sad that nowadays people a lot of people haven’t figured it out. Many people are caught up in what they think is happiness and live their whole lives miserable. Throughout literature, it is evident that striving for money does not end up what you want to be in the end. The characters in A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen and The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald experience that becoming wealthyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Court Scene 1217 Words   |  5 Pagesfascinated with their mysterious neighbor Boo Radley and have an escalating series of encounters with him. Meanwhile, Atticus is assigned to defend a black man, Tom Robinson against the spurious rape charges Bob Ewell has brought against him. Watching the trial, Scout, and especially Jem, cannot understand how a jury could possibly convict Tom Robinson based on the Ewells’ clearly fabricated story. What if it were in 2016 how would the different events that happened be different in the 21st centuryRead MoreGender Socialization : The Constitutional And Unfolding Of Individuals As Boys Or Girls Essay1183 Words   |  5 Pagessporting events(Messner316). Along with this knowledge, I asked how his father would have reacted if he was caught playing with an action figure versus a Barbie doll, and his response is what was to be expected. He explained that â€Å"well it was normal for me to play with an action figure, well to a specific age, of course. And a Barbie Doll? Let`s just say, my father would have had an adverse reaction, to say the least.† The reason I say his response was expected is by kindergarten, boys â€Å"police boundariesRead MoreAnalysis Of Andy And Nora s Play Out If They Were From The 21st Century United States?1574 Words   |  7 Pagespatriarch is almost the on ly means of a married women gaining financial leverage, unless of course she is lucky enough to be allowed to work or get an education. Even though A Dolls House took place in 19th century Norway, in the US women rights were on the cusps of their early beginnings. They, at least, had a women s university however for only prestigious white females and still did not have the legal nor financial freedoms like today. Joanne Karpinski gives great insight in her book AmericanRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1407 Words   |  6 PagesThe system also neglects those who could benefit most from education. Walter Cunningham explains ‘reason I can’t pass the first grade, Mr Finch, is I’ve had to stay out ever’ spring an’ help papa with the choppin’, but there’s another’n at the house now that’s field size’. The declarative sentence shows how this seems entirely normal to Walter, because the system’s flaws seem inevitable. The connective ‘but’ implies hope that his education may progress due to a younger sibling taking overRead MoreBiography of Grandparent1550 Words   |  7 Pages now 75 years old, believes she has been blessed everyday of her life. It sounded surprising after I interviewed her to hear how religious and optimistic she is about her life. You see, I knew her as my quirky grandmother – who used to crotchet dolls on top of soda bottles, or kiss a penny that was heads up on the floor – but I never knew her as who she really was. She was a daughter, a mother, a lover, widow, grandmother and a person learning and experiencing life as exciting and joyful everyRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird1617 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"Cry about the simple hell people give other people- without even thinking† My considered opinion of this novel in the light of this comment. If Harper Lee had limited her portrayal of prejudice and discrimination merely to the trial of Tom Robinson, a victim of the most virulent form of racial prejudice, â€Å"To Kill a Mockingbird† would probably be little more than a historical footnote. Wisely, though, Lee manages to tie racial prejudice to the many other forms of prejudice we all faceRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1507 Words   |  7 Pagesgetting Boo Radley out of the house. Atticus told the kids to stop bothering Boo Radley and try to see life from another person’s perspective before making judgments. Later on, Scout and Jem found gifts that were left for them in a hole of a tree on the Radley property that was eventually filled with cement by Boo Radley’s brother, Nathan Radley. Scout and Jem begins the adventure of experiencing adulthood. Maycomb is a racist white community because a black man named Tom Robinson, who has been accusedRead MoreEmpathy Towards A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1099 Words   |  5 Pagesstay pure. Tom Robinson, presented in part two of the novel, was a noble man of color who was very helpful towards others regardless of his disabilities. On many occasions he helped a young white woman, Mayella the daughter of Bob Ewell, with all her needs because he felt sorry for her. Unfortunately, for this mockingbird, he was tried for raping Mayella, although she was the one to seduce a black man. Tom was found guilty even after a long ponderation on his verdict. In addition, Tom became weary

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Legacy Of The American Civil War - 1030 Words

When the American Civil War began, President Abraham Lincoln carefully framed the issue concerning the preservation of the Union rather than the abolition of slavery. As an individual, Lincoln hated slavery, he knew that neither Northerners nor the residents of the border slave states would support abolition as a war aim. As a Republican, he wished to eliminate it from the territories as the first step to putting the institution â€Å"in the course of ultimate extinction.† But as president of the United States, Lincoln was destined by the Constitution that protected slavery in any state where citizens wanted it. In September of 1862, after the Union’s victory at Antietam, Lincoln issued a preliminary decree stating that, unless the rebellious†¦show more content†¦President Abraham Lincoln did not initially plan to free the slaves in rebelling southern states. The Congress passed Compensated Emancipation Act in 1862 that paid the slave owners to release their slaves. After two years of war, President Lincoln enacted the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves in rebelling Southern states. He was concerned that freeing all slaved would alienate border states. Because so many border states had slaves, Lincoln wanted to use a gradual compensated, and most importantly voluntary emancipation. The Emancipation Proclamation did not bring an effective end to slavery, but it did initiate the process and established a way for minorities to attain equality. Two army generals had previously made unsupported Proclamation to free slaves in rebelling Southern slaves. Major-General J.C. Fre mont in 1861 was first to radically use the martial law of military emancipation of slaves. However, General Fremont 1861 Proclamation is Missouri stated: â€Å"All persons who shall be taken with arms in their hands within these lines shall be tried by court-martial, and, if found guilty, will be shot. The property, real and personal, of all persons in the State of Missouri who shall take up arms against the United States, and who shall be directly proven to have active part with their enemies in the field, is declared to be confiscated to the public use; and their slaves, if any they have, are hereby declared free.†Show MoreRelatedThe Legacy Of The American Civil War1531 Words   |  7 PagesThe American Civil War was the South’s to lose, even though they lacked the firepower needed and had far less men, the win was within their grasp after the first shot at Fort Sumter. The reason for this was simple, they had a cause and they were willing to fight for it until the very end. They also had a few men who stood out as some of the most intelligent and militarily inclined leaders ever to have control of an army. Of those masterminds included Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, James LongstreetRead MoreThe Legacy Of The American Civil War921 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Where there are men there will be war.† A simple statement made by one of the greatest thinkers of our generation, Albert Einstein. As a nation in its developmental stages there would be moments and trials that would define as a country and as a species. None more prevalent in our development than the civil war. Our founding fathers sought to create a perfect government, in which every individual has a voice. In certain aspects they succeeded greatly but in others they failed. The north and southRead MoreThe Legacy Of The American Civil War1110 Words   |  5 PagesThe American Civil War was the result of decades of sectional tensions between the North and South. Over the next several months eleven southern states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America. During the first two years of the war, Southern troops won numerous victories, but saw their fortunes turned after losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in 1863. From then on, Northern forces worked to conqueror the South, forcing them to surrender in April 1865. The roots of the Civil War can beRead MoreThe Legacy Of The American Civil War1283 Words   |  6 Pagesare many topics such as slavery had been considered to be the root of the War Between the States. All of these subjects are actually just facets of one and that is culture. The idea that the American Civil War was the result of divergent and clashing northern and southern cultures is one that is valid, sound, and supported. Culture affects how people perceive themselves, others, and the world. Of the many aspects of American culture there are a few that stand out for being the most divisive: slaveryRead MoreThe Legacy Of The American Civil War1784 Words   |  8 PagesThe American Civil War was a unique event in history. It involved and raised so many profound questions about nations and laws, and about humanity and conscience. Often described as the first modern war, it was, for Americans, the bloodiest ever fought. It changed fundamentally the nature of citizenship, and tried t o bring an end to one of the great obscenities for which humans have been responsible. Its divisions echo with us still today. Hanging a confederate flag has powerful connotations andRead MoreRace And Reunion : The Civil War1581 Words   |  7 Pagessouth. Striving for a reunion, a majority of American white communities close obscure the civil war racial narrative would only fade. In race and reunion: The Civil War in American memory, by David Blight, represents how Americans chose to remember the Civil War conflict, from the beginning of the turning point of the war. The two major themes race and reunion, demonstrate how white Americans adjusted and altered the causes and outcomes of the Civil War to reflect their particular ideas regardingRead MoreJohn F. Kennedy 1158 Words   |  5 PagesReflections on the Life, Assassination, and Legacy of John F. Kennedy written by Dean R. Owen is a series of reflections of people who knew and admired John F. Kennedy. Most people in the book discuss where they were the day of his assassination, their reaction, and how it affected everything and everyone around them. Others speak about what kind of leader Kennedy was, the legacy he left behind, and how when he died the country was never the same. Owen writes about people who once workedRead MoreTime Line 21050 Words   |  5 PagesNOTE: Before starting the Timeline project please refer to the Example Timeline Matrix document. Instructions: Complete the matrix by providing the Time Period/Date(s) in column B, and the Description and Significance of the People/Event(s) to American History in column C. See complete instructions in the Syllabus for the Module 3 assignment entitled. â€Å"Timeline Part II.† NOTE: The timeline project does not need to be submitted to turnitin. NOTE: Please write your answers in a clear and conciseRead MoreEssay about The Reconstruction Era: The Planted Seeds1231 Words   |  5 PagesThe first roar of the Civil War ended with a last gasp for air. Where in such a war more than six hundred twenty thousand men sacrificed their lives for their own belief in the abolishment of slavery (â€Å"Civil War Facts†). â€Å"We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain. That this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom† (Baslor). These wise words of Abraham Lincoln cleared the way of a desolate trail of violence and pain, yet he was determined to accomplish his plansRead MoreThe Legacy Of Abraham Lincoln s 12 Years A Slave 1366 Words   |  6 Pages† During the Pre-Civil war period, the North and the South had already divided over their differences, such as geography and slavery. They found it hard to resolve their differences that tensions developed and fights broke out. These ev ents caused the need for leadership. Abraham Lincoln’s election caused him step up to that position of leadership which allowed him to leave a legacy by the Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg Address, and the Amendments. Lincoln set the Civil war and took Cultural

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Economic Development Land Tenure Systems Free Essays

Land tenure can be defined as the traditional or legal rights which individuals and groups have to land and the behavior characteristics which directly result from these rights. The above definition denotes social relationships manifested in the property rights which individuals and groups have to the land. Land tenure is a crucial factor in the operation of rural land markets, influencing the pace and direction of agricultural development. We will write a custom essay sample on Economic Development Land Tenure Systems or any similar topic only for you Order Now Since land tenure systems govern access to the means of production in agriculture, they have also been an intensely political subject in rural societies. The first indication of tenure considerations is found among certain preliterate or primitive societies. Among these groups the appropriation of land has not assumed importance in and of itself and the land is viewed as free in total. But in some societies which have progressed no further than a hunting and fishing economy, exclusive claims sometimes are made on certain parcels of land. Since colonial times, the dominant belief has been that individual tenure is more progressive, modern, efficient, and better for economic growth than indigenous communal tenure. The arguments in favor of labeling claimed that customary tenure is insecure for the small farmer and provides no incentive for land improvements, that it prevents land from being used as collateral for credit and that it prevents the transfer of land from inefficient users to efficient ones. They expected that indigenous customary tenure would wither, but it has proved surprisingly resilient and adaptable, and has coexisted with modern tenure. The most effective form of policy intervention would be governmental guidance, so that customary tenure systems evolve and operate more effectively. Some studies argue that tenure insecurity is correlated negatively with the quality of resource management. Over usage and degradation of natural resources, such as deforestation and soil erosion, are often characterized because of incomplete, inconsistent property rights, as the costs are borne by society as a whole, whereas benefits accrue to individuals. The relationship between customary tenure and land degradation indicates that customary tenure is partly responsible for land degradation. However the behavior that leads to land degradation by smallholder farmers under customary tenure cannot be linked to their lack of tenure security under customary tenure. Rather it is linked to other reasons such as lack of knowledge of conservation practices, use of traditional agricultural production practices that are not sustainable, and lack of inputs such as labor. In this regard, small farmers need extension methods that focus on relevant technologies that promote sustainable agricultur al production. (Lynn Smith, 1953) The concept of land reform is itself a controversial and semantically intriguing topic. Its narrowest and traditional meaning confines it to land distribution. A broader view includes in it other related changes in agricultural institutions, such as credit, taxation, rents, cooperatives, etc. It can also be interperated that these reforms are practically synonymous with all agricultural improvement measures — better seeds, price policies, irrigation, research, mechanization, etc. The Land Tenure reforms to be found in any country appear to a great extent to be the function of government. They are closely related to the social and economic well-being of the people. The latter fact sets the stage for the discussion in this chapter. Its concern is the major forms or systems of land tenure and the distinct patterns of social and economic relationships characteristic of each. By way of illustration they point out, among other examples, that individualism and individual initiative are usually more developed in a community of individual farm-owners on small holdings than in a community where one or a few men own all the land and the workers are serfs, laborers, or non-managing tenants of one kind or another. The extent to which the ownership and control of the land is concentrated in a few hands or widely distributed among those who live from farming is probably the most important single determinant of the welfare of the people on the land. Throughout the world wherever there is a widespread distribution of land ownership and control. The implication of intense pressure of farm population on agricultural land inevitably results in a farm-tenure situation that is unsatisfactory from the point of view of working farm people. This is so because pressure of population on land drives down the marginal productivity of labor and the real return to labor as a factor of production. If farm land-tenure reforms are not accompanied by policies to reduce excessive pressure of farm population on agricultural land, such reforms are likely to be of little or no avail. Fortunately, the two recent programs to assist depressed rural areas to some degree reflect an awareness of this principle. The term that is basic to land tenure theory and which helps to explain the usefulness of the interdisciplinary approach is distribution. According to economic theory, laying aside all qualifying statements for the sake of simplicity, the impersonal market distributes economic rewards according to merit. However, is too narrow a concept to explain fully the distribution principle even in a † free † market. (Alvin L. Bertrand, Floyd L. Corty 1962) The reform or liberal position on the land question thus far had been to make the public-land system function in a democratic way by assuring the small man the right to acquire a piece of the national domain. Limitations were put in the Preemption, the Graduation, the Homestead Acts and their variations to make certain that only the small man could take advantage of them until the issue of the patent, but beyond that they had no effect. All such measures were therefore used by large interests acting through fake buyers to acquire lands they could not legally acquire otherwise. Timber land in Wisconsin, Minnesota, California, and Washington, grazing lands in Colorado, Wyoming, Arizona, and Idaho, wheat lands in Kansas, Nebraska, North and South Dakota passed into the hands of great lumber companies, cattle companies, and bonanza farm groups under laws that were designed to prevent large-scale accumulation. The unwillingness of Congress to experiment with restrictions on alienation made inevitable the concentration of ownership which grieved western agrarians. (Alvin L. Bertrand, Floyd L. Corty, 1962) Evans, Greeley, George, and other radicals had failed to carry the mass of land reformers with them on the question of alienability. Americans found it easy to be radical or to favor reform when to do so did not impose any self limitation, but few were attracted to any idea that might restrict their right to accumulate property or to sell and gain the unearned increment. The reforms which were being adopted at this late time were both ineffective and to some extent unwise. Since the desirable size for land-use units was increasing as population moved into the arid and semi-arid regions, the 320 acre limitation on the amount of government land persons could acquire compelled either evasion and abuse of the laws to acquire adequately sized units or the establishment of small grain farms in areas unsuited to cultivation. This pattern of evasion and abuse of the land laws and the establishment of small grain farms in areas better planned by nature for grazing carried well into the twentieth century. Not until 1934 were comprehensive and far-reaching reforms initiated to produce a desirable and constructive plan of land use. The preponderant, almost the universal view of Americans until near the end of the nineteenth century was that the government should get out of the land business as rapidly as possible by selling or giving to settlers, donating for worthy purposes and ceding the lands to the states which should in turn pass them swiftly into private hands. No matter how badly owners abused their holdings through reckless cultivation, destructive and wasteful cutting of the timber, prodigal and careless mining for coal and drilling for oil, few questioned their right to subject their property to any form of use or abuse. An extensive part of the fertile coastal plain and piedmont of the South and of the hill-farming area of the northeast could be cultivated in such a way as to reduce the land to barren, gullied, and eroded tracts no longer able to produce crops, to support families, and to carry their share of community costs, but few denied the right of the owners to do as they wished with their property or, more fundamentally, questioned the system of land distribution that seemed to invite such practices. The shore line of the Atlantic, of bays and inlets, of inland lakes all near congested urban areas could be monopolized by a wealthy few, and still there were few complaints. Rich landlords, speculators, and corporations could buy unlimited amounts of land from the United States, or purchase from other owners who had acquired tracts from the state or federal government and keep their holdings from development for years, thereby blighting whole areas, delaying the introduction of schools and roads and doing immeasurable harm to neighboring residents. References Alvin L. Bertrand, Floyd L. Corty (1962) Rural Land Tenure in the United States: A Socio- Economic Approach to Problems, Programs, and Trends. Southwest Land Tenure Research Committee   Louisiana State University Press. Place of Publication: Baton Rouge Alvin L. Bertrand, † The Social System as a Conceptual and Analytical Device in the Study of Land Tenure,† Land Tenure Workshop Report, Chap. VII. Lynn Smith, The Sociology of Rural Life (3d ed.; New York: Harper Bros., 1953), 274. Rawls John ( 1971) The Theory of Justice. Belknap Press. Rawls J (2001) Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Roth Michael 2002) Integrating Land Issues and Land Policy with Poverty Reduction and Roland R. Renne, Land Economics ( New York: Harper Bros., 1947), 429. William H. Nicholls, † Southern Traditions and Regional Economic Progress,† Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 26 ( January, 1960), 187-98; id., Southern Traditions and Regional Economic Progress ( Chapel Hill, N. C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1960). How to cite Economic Development Land Tenure Systems, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Auditorium Music Testing free essay sample

Division of the music library into groups on basis of familiarity and likeability levels This output helps the programming team prune the play mix and help identify songs which should be played more/less Extended Objectives Besides the obvious output of segregating the songs into lists (basis which should be played more/less/discarded), AMT outputs are analyzed for higher understanding as follows: It gives us answers as to whether the city TG prefers regional music over Hindi or English music and hence, helps us form programming strategies. In addition, comparison of AMT output of two cities aides ground level understanding for the programming team which is helpful in designing the play mix. For example, comparison of Delhi vs. Mumbai outputs prove that Delhi audience tends towards Punjabi hits whereas Mumbai audience prefers more evolved Hindi Bollywood numbers with softer tempo. Over a period of time, understanding how music preferences vary over various Indian regions helps the station make more informed choices when launching in new markets. We will write a custom essay sample on Auditorium Music Testing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page